NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 19950017268: Performance results of cooperating expert systems in a distributed real-time monitoring system
Publication date 1994-10-01
Topics NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, COMPUTER NETWORKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE, CONCURRENT PROCESSING, DIAGNOSIS, DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING, EXPERT SYSTEMS, IN-FLIGHT MONITORING, INTERPROCESSOR COMMUNICATION, KNOWLEDGE BASES (ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE), REAL TIME OPERATION, ALGORITHMS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS DESIGN, ELECTRONIC MODULES, FAILURE ANALYSIS, FAULT DETECTION, RULER METHOD, SPACECRAFT MAINTENANCE, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, TELEMETRY, Schwuttke, U. M., Veregge, J. R., Quan, A. G.,
There are numerous definitions for real-time systems, the most stringent of which involve guaranteeing correct system response within a domain-dependent or situationally defined period of time. For applications such as diagnosis, in which the time required to produce a solution can be non-deterministic, this requirement poses a unique set of challenges in dynamic modification of solution strategy that conforms with maximum possible latencies. However, another definition of real time is relevant in the case of monitoring systems where failure to supply a response in the proper (and often infinitesimal) amount of time allowed does not make the solution less useful (or, in the extreme example of a monitoring system responsible for detecting and deflecting enemy missiles, completely irrelevant). This more casual definition involves responding to data at the same rate at which it is produced, and is more appropriate for monitoring applications with softer real-time constraints, such as interplanetary exploration, which results in massive quantities of data transmitted at the speed of light for a number of hours before it even reaches the monitoring system. The latter definition of real time has been applied to the MARVEL system for automated monitoring and diagnosis of spacecraft telemetry. An early version of this system has been in continuous operational use since it was first deployed in 1989 for the Voyager encounter with Neptune. This system remained under incremental development until 1991 and has been under routine maintenance in operations since then, while continuing to serve as an artificial intelligence (AI) testbed in the laboratory. The system architecture has been designed to facilitate concurrent and cooperative processing by multiple diagnostic expert systems in a hierarchical organization. The diagnostic modules adhere to concepts of data-driven reasoning, constrained but complete nonoverlapping domains, metaknowledge of global consequences of anomalous data, hierarchical reporting of problems that extend beyond a single domain, and shared responsibility for problems that overlap domains. The system enables efficient diagnosis of complex system failures in real-time environments with high data volumes and moderate failure rates, as indicated by extensive performance measurements.
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